Representations of female sexuality in Spanish television fiction

Main Article Content

Charo Lacalle http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0024-6591 Deborah Castro http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7980-0964

Resumen

La sobrerrepresentación de la sexualidad en la televisión y el debate suscitado por las nuevas feminidades han convertido la investigación sobre sexualidad y ficción televisiva en un fructífero campo de estudio. El análisis de contenido muestra que la televisión ofrece una imagen distorsionada de la sexualidad y que la información sobre cuestiones sexuales raramente figura en los programas. Este artículo analiza las representaciones de los personajes femeninos de la ficción televisiva española, mediante la utilización de un método híbrido que combina herramientas como el programa estadístico SPSS con la socio-semiótica. La muestra comprende los 709 personajes femeninos incluidos en la ficción propia de estreno de 2012 y 2013. La actividad sexual de los personajes femeninos está condicionada por el atractivo y por la edad, a excepción de las niñas y adolescentes. Los personajes jóvenes de la muestra identifican el empoderamiento con la asertividad y el control, mientras que las representaciones de las mujeres mayores de 45 años son muy escasas. Las relaciones sexuales son representadas como el desenlace “natural” de las relaciones románticas y la seducción

Article Details

Como citar
LACALLE, Charo; CASTRO, Deborah. Representations of female sexuality in Spanish television fiction. Convergencia Revista de Ciencias Sociales, [S.l.], n. 75, p. 45-64, ago. 2017. ISSN 2448-5799. Disponible en: <https://convergencia.uaemex.mx/article/view/4656>. Fecha de acceso: 18 nov. 2017
Sección
Artículos

Citas

Al-Sayed, Rami and Gunter, Barrie (2012), “How much sex is there in soap operas on British TV?”, in Communications, vol. 37, no. 4, Germany: De Gruyter. DOI: 10.1515/commun-2012-0019
Araüna, Núria (2013), “Feminitat i individualisme a Infidels: identitats de gènere i representacions de les relacions sexuals i afectives al paradigma postromantic”, in Comunicació: Revista de recerca i d’anàlisi, vol. 3, no. 1. Available at: http://revistes.iec.cat/index.php/TC/article/view/67173/66968 [November 4th, 2015].
Attwood, Feona (2006), “Sexed up: theorizing the sexualization of culture”, in Sexualities, vol. 9, no. 1, UK: Sage Publications. DOI: 10.1177/1363460706053336.
Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens (2004), “Sex and punishment: An examination of sexual consequences and the sexual double standard in ten programming”, in Sex Roles, vol. 50, no. 7-8, US: Springer. DOI: 10.1023/B:SERS.0000023070.87195.07.
Aubrey, Jennifer and Gamble, Hilary (2014), “Sex, romance, and media: Taking stock of two research literatures”, in Oliver, Mary Beth and Raney, Arthur [eds.], Media and social life, USA: Routledge.
Behm-Morawitz, Elisabeth and Mastro, Dana (2008), “Mean girls? The influence of gender portrayals in teen movies on emerging adults’ gender-based attitudes and beliefs”, in Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, vol. 85, no. 1, US: Sage Publishing. DOI: 10.1177/107769900808500109.
Berridge, Susan (2014), “Glances, dances, romances. An overview of tendered sexual narratives in teen drama series”, in Carter, Cinthya et al. [eds.], The Routledge companion to media and gender, England: Routledge.
Brown, Jane (2002), “Mass media influences on sexuality”, in The Journal of Sex Research, vol. 39, no. 1, UK: Taylor & Francis. DOI: 10.1080/00224490209552118.
Braidotti, Rosi (2001), Metamorphoses: Towards a Materialist Theory of Becoming, United Kingdom: Polity Press.
Braidotti, Rosi (2004), Feminismo, diferencia sexual y subjetividad nómade, Spain: Gedisa.
Brunsdon, Charlotte (2000), The feminist, the housewife and the soap opera, United Kingdom: Clarendon Press.
Chicharro, Mar (2013), “Representaciones de la mujer en la ficción postfeminista: Ally McBeal, Sex and the City y Desperate Housewives”, in Papers. Revista de Sociología, vol. 98, no. 1, Spain: UAB. DOI: 10.5565/rev/papers/v98n1.469.
Collins, Rebecca et al. (2003), “Entertainment Television as a Healthy Sex Educator: The Impact of Condom-Efficacy Information in an Episode of Friends”, in Pediatrics, vol. 112, no. 5, US: American Academy of Pediatrics. DOI: 10.1542/peds.112.5.1115.
Davis, Glyn (2004), “Saying it Out Loud’: Revealing Television’s Queer Teens”, in Davis, Glyn and Dickinson, Kay [eds.], Teen TV: genre, consumption, identity, England: British Film Institute.
Emons, Pascale et al. (2010), “He Works Outside the Home; She Drinks Coffee and Does the Dishes: Gender Roles in Fiction Programs on Dutch Television”, in Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, vol. 54, no. 1, UK: Taylor & Francis. DOI: 10.1080/08838150903550386.
Eyal, Keren and Finnerty, Kelly (2007), “The Portrayal of Sexual Intercourse on Prime-Time Programming”, in Communication Research Reports, vol. 24, no. 3, UK: Taylor & Francis. DOI: 10.1080/08824090701439125.
Eyal, Keren and Finnerty, Kelly (2009), “The Portrayal of Sexual Intercourse on Television: How, Who, and With What Consequence?”, in Mass Communication and Society, vol. 12, no. 2, UK: Taylor & Francis. DOI: 10.1080/15205430802136713.
Eyal, Keren and Kunkel, Dale (2008), “The Effects of Sex in Television Drama Shows on Emerging Adults’ Sexual Attitudes and Moral Judgments”, in Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, vol. 52, no. 2, UK: Taylor & Francis. DOI: 10.1080/08838150801991757.
Faludi, Susan (1991), Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women, USA: Doubleday Press. 
Farrar, Kirstie et al. (2003), “Sexual messages during prime-time programming”, in Sexuality and Culture, vol. 7, no. 3, US: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/s12119-003-1001-y.
Fernández-Morales, Marta (2009), “Illness, Genre and Gender in Contemporary Television Fiction: Representations of Female Cancer in Sex in the City and Desperate Housewives”, in Women’s Studies, no. 38, UK: Taylor & Francis. DOI: 10.1080/00497870903021752.
Fisher, Deborah et al. (2004), “Sex on American Television: An Analysis Across Program Genres and Network Type”, in Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, vol. 48, no. 4, UK: Taylor & Francis. DOI: 10.1207/s15506878jobem4804_1.
Galán, Elena (2007), “Construcción de género y ficción televisiva en España, in Comunicar, no. 28. Available at: http://www.revistacomunicar.com/index.php?contenido=detalles&numero=28&articulo=28-2007-28 [November 6th, 2015].
Gallager, Margaret (2014), “Media and the representation of gender”, in Carter, Cynthia et al. [eds.], The Routledge companion to media and gender, England: Routledge.
Gamman, Lorraine and Marshment, Margaret (1989), The Female Gaze: Women as Viewers of Popular Culture, USA: The Real Comet Press.
García-Muñoz, Núria and Fedele, Madalena (2011), “The Teen Series and the Young Target: Gender Stereotypes in Television Fiction Targeted to Teenagers”, in Observatorio (OBS) Journal, vol. 5, no. 18. Available at: http://obs.obercom.pt/index.php/obs/article/view/389/425 [November 6th, 2015].
Geertz, Clifford (1973), The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays, USA: Basic Books.
Giddens, Anthony (1992/1993), The Transformation of Intimacy, Sexuality, Love, and Eroticism in Modern Societies, United Kingdom: Polity Press.
Gill, Rosalind (2007), “Postfeminist media culture. Elements of a sensibility”, in European Journal of Cultural Studies Reader, vol. 10, no. 2, UK: Sage Publications. DOI: 10.1177/1367549407075898.
Gill, Rosalind (2008), “Empowerment/Sexism: Figuring Female Sexual Agency in Contemporary Advertising”, in Feminism & Psychology, vol. 8, no. 1, US: Sage Publishing. DOI: 10.1177/0959353507084950.
Gill, Rosalind (2014), “Postfeminist sexual culture”, in Carter, Cynthia et al. [eds.], The Routledge companion to media and gender, England: Routledge.
Gill, Rosalind and Scharff, Christine (2011), “Introduction”, in Rosalind Gill and Christina Scharff [eds.], New femininities: Postfeminism, neoliberalism, and subjectivity, England: Palgrave-MacMillan.
Glascock, Jack (2001), “Gender roles on primetime network television: demographics and behaviors”, in Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, vol. 45, no. 4, UK: Taylor & Francis. DOI: 10.1207/s15506878jobem4504_7.
Glascock, Jack (2003), “Gender, Race, and Aggression in Newer TV Networks’ Primetime Programming”, in Communication Quarterly, vol. 51, no. 1, UK: Francis & Taylor. DOI: 10.1080/01463370309370142.
Glatzer, Elisabeth (2010), Sitcoms in a league of their own: A Critical Analysis of Situational Feminism in The Golden Girls and Sex and the City, Senior Honors Thesis Submitted to the Department of Communication of Boston College: Available at: https://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/schools/cas_sites/communication/pdf/thesis10.glatzer.pdf [November 6th, 2015].
Guarinos, Virginia (2009), “Fenómenos televisivos «teenagers»: prototipos adolescentes en series vistas en España”, in Comunicar, no. 33, Spain: Grupo Comunicar. DOI 10.3916/c33-2009-03-012.
Harris, Anita (2004), Future Girl: Young Women in the Twenty-First Century, England: Routledge.
Huyssen, Andreas (2006), Después de la gran división: modernismo, cultura de masas, postmodernismo, Argentina: Adriana Hidalgo Editora.
Kelly, Maura (2010), “Virginity Loss Narratives in ‘Teen Drama’ Television Programs”, in The Journal of Sex Research, vol. 47, no. 5, UK: Taylor & Francis. DOI: 10.1080/00224490903132044.
Kim, Janna et al. (2007), “From Sex to Sexuality: Exposing the Heterosexual Script on Primetime Network Television”, in Journal of sex research, vol. 44, no. 2, UK: Taylor & Francis. DOI: 10.1080/00224490701263660.
Kunkel, Dale et al. (2007), “Sexual Socialization Messages on Entertainment Television: Comparing Content Trends 1997-2002”, in Media Psychology, no. 9, UK: Francis & Taylor. DOI: 10.1080/15213260701283210.
Kunkel, Dale et al. (2005), Sex on TV 4: A biennial report to the Kaiser Family Foundation, USA: Kaiser Family Foundation.
Kunkel, Dale et al. (2003), Sex on TV 3: A biennial report to the Kaiser Family foundation, USA: Kaiser Family Foundation.
Kunkel, Dale et al. (2001), Sex on TV 2: A biennial report to the Kaiser Family Foundation, USA: Kaiser Family Foundation.
Kunkel, Dale et al. (1999), Sex on TV: A biennial report to the Kaiser Family Foundation, USA: Kaiser Family Foundation.
Lacalle, Charo (2013), Jóvenes y ficción televisiva. Construcción de identidad y transmedialidad, Spain: UOCPress.
Landowski, Eric (1997), Présences de l’autre: essais de socio-sémiotique II, France: Presses Universitaires de France.
Lauzen, Martha et al. (2008), “Constructing gender stereotypes through social roles in prime-time television”, in Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, vol. 52, no. 2, UK: Taylor & Francis. DOI: 10.1080/08838150801991971.
Levy, Ariel (2005), Female Chauvinist Pigs: Women and the Rise of Raunch Culture, USA: Free Press.
Masanet, María et al. (2012), “Representación mediática de la sexualidad en la ficción seriada dirigida a los jóvenes. Estudio de caso de Los Protegidos y Física o Química”, in Revista Comunicación, vol. 1. no. 10. Available at: http://www.revistacomunicacion.org/pdf/n10/mesa9/117.Representacion_mediatica_de_la_sexualidad_en_la_ficcion_seriada_dirigida_a_los_jovenes-Estudio_de_caso_de_Los_Protegidos_y_Fisica_o_Quimica.pdf [November 15th, 2015].
McNair, Brian (1996), Mediated sex: pornography and postmodern culture, England: Arnold.
McNair, Brian (2002), Striptease culture: sex, media and the democratization of Desire, England: Routledge.
McRobbie, Angela (2004), “Post-Feminist and Popular Culture”, in Feminist Media Studies, vol. 4, no. 3. DOI: 10.1080/1468077042000309937.
McRobbie, Angela (2009), The Aftermath of Feminism: Gender, Culture and Social Change, England: Sage Publications.
Merskin, Debra (2007), “Three Faces of Eva: Perpetuation of the Hot-Latina Stereotype in Desperate Housewives”, in The Howard Journal of Communications, vol. 18, no. 2, UK: Taylor & Francis. DOI: 10.1080/10646170701309890.
MSPS (2009), Encuesta Nacional de Salud Sexual, Madrid, España: Ministerio de Sanidad y Política Social. Available at: http://www.msssi.gob.es/organizacion/sns/planCalidadSNS/docs/v5_presentacion_ResultadosENSS_16dic09.pdf [November 15th, 2015].
MSSSI (2012), Interrupción Voluntaria del Embarazo. Datos definitivos correspondientes al año 2012, Spain: Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad. Available at: http://www.msssi.gob.es/profesionales/saludPublica/prevPromocion/embarazo/docs/IVE_2012.pdf [November 12th, 2015].
Oliver, Mari Beth et al. (2014), “Media and social groups”, in Mari Beth Oliver and Arthur A. Raney [eds.], Media and social life, New York: Routledge.
Plummer, Ken (2003), “Re-Presenting Sexualities in the Media”, in Sexualities, vol. 6, no. 3-4, UK: Sage Publications. DOI: 10.1177/136346070363001.
Plummer, Ken (1995), Telling Sexual Stories: Power, Change and Social Worlds, England: Routledge.
Ramajo, Nati et al. (2008), “La presencia del adolescente en el prime time televisivo: objeto de interés en informativos, ficción y publicidad”, in Sphera Pública, no. 8. Available at: http://sphera.ucam.edu/index.php/sphera-01/article/view/76 [November 3rd, 2015].
Rivadeneyra, Rocío (2011), “Gender and Race Portrayals on Spanish-Language Television”, in Sex Roles, vol. 65, no. 3, US: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/s11199-011-0010-9.
Semprini, Andrea (1990), “Introduzione”, in Andrea Semprini [Ed], Lo sguardosociosemiotico. Comunicazione, marche, media, pubblicità, Italy: Angeli.
Signorielli, Nancy (2000), “Sex on primetime in the 90’s”, in Communication Research Reports, vol. 17, no. 1, UK: Taylor & Francis. DOI: 10.1080/08824090009388752.
Signorielli, Nancy and Aaron Bacue (1999), “Recognition and respect: A content analysis of prime-time television characters across three decades”, in Sex Roles, vol. 40, no. 7-8, US: Springer. DOI: 10.1023/A:1018883912900.
Signorielli, Nancy and Susan Kahlenberg (2001), “Television’s world of work in the nineties”, in Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, vol. 45, no. 1, UK: Taylor & Francis. DOI: 10.1207/s15506878jobem4501_2.
Strasburger, Víctor C. (2010), “Sexuality, Contraception, and the Media”, in Pediatrics, vol. 126, no. 3, US: American Academy of Pediatrics. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2010-1544.
Trapero, Patricia (2010), “Dexter y la dramaturgia televisiva contemporánea: entre la ficción criminal y la (auto)biografía”, in Trapero, Patricia [ed.], Dexter. Ética y estética de un asesino en serie, Palma de Mallorca: UIB and Laertes.
Tyler, Meegan (2010), “The politics of pornography and pornographication in Australia”, in Australian Political Science Association Conference. Available at: https://www.academia.edu/927852/The_Politics_of_Pornography_and_Pornographication_in_Australia [October 30th, 2015].
Van Damme, Elke (2010), “Gender and sexual scripts in popular US teen series: A study on the gendered discourses in ‘One Tree Hill and Gossip Girl’”, in Catalan Journal of Communication & Cultural Studies, vol. 2, no. 1, UK: Intellect. DOI: 10.1386/cjcs.2.1.77_1.
Van Gennep, Arnold (1981), Les rites de passage: étude systématique des rites, France: Éditions Picard.
Ward, L. Monique (1995), “Talking about sex: Common themes about sexuality in prime-time television programs children and adolescents view most”, in Journal of Youth and Adolescence, vol. 24, no. 5, US: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/BF01537058.
Whelehan, Imelda (2000), Overloaded. Popular Culture Future of Feminism, England: The Women’s Press.