This article looks into the international literature that explores the unequal gender distribution in Science and Technology (S&T) to review dominant theoretical approaches focused on the role of gender stereotypes in the election of professional and educational paths. Taking into account the limitations of the biological approach, from both an empirical and conceptual point of view, the perspectives focused on psychosocial and socio-cultural processes and the culture of science insist on the persistence of stereotypes and on their fragility and permeability as well. The article highlights that programs to reduce the gender gap are marked by the dominant theoretical perspectives, as well as the appropriateness of adopting global and innovative actions to promote an S&T system based on equality, excellence and competitiveness.
The article presents an analysis and systematic evaluation of the opportunities for citizen participation in the public policies of social wellbeing at the local level in Spain and their actual impact on the design, implementation, execution and evaluation of public policies of social wellbeing at the municipal level. The results of the investigation, between 2004 and 2012, permit, first, to present the type of offer diverse opportunities for participation in the regional level of social wellbeing in Spain and then identity, from its participants, dimensions that help to improve efficiency of public wellbeing policies at the municipal level by intensifying processes of democratization. The results show little opportunity to participate and if more formal than real, not to favor the possibility of an exercise of power or actual impact on the design, implementation and evaluation of municipal social policies.